Reverse osmosis is the process in which pressure is applied to overcome the colligative property and osmotic pressure which is directed by a thermodynamic parameter and chemical difference of a solvent.
This application is mainly used in the production of drinking water in water systems and industries. The final result will be the solute. It occurs when pure solvent is allowed to follow one end of the membrane thus allowing a solute to retain in one permissible side of a membrane. Reverse osmosis removes suspended and dissolved types of species from water, including bacteria

Contaminants removed from water by reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis removes 99% of dissolved salt particles, colloids, bacteria, pyrogens from feed water. Contaminants are separated from the RO membrane based on size and charge. The lower the charge of the contaminant, the greater the chance of it passing through the RO membrane. For example, sodium and calcium are monovalent and divalent, respectively. Because of their smaller charges, they can easily pass through the membrane. Similarly, RO cannot remove gases such as carbon dioxide from water because they are not highly ionized.

What is RO used for?

RO units can produce pure water for different uses and purposes:
* Water for domestic use
* Water for industrial uses (food, beverages, textiles, paper, medicines, beverages)
* Sea water desalination for uses in (villas, hotels, tourist villages).
* Brackish water desalination for (irrigation, large animal farms, poultry farms, desert locations)